Search results “Columbus america 1492”
America Before Columbus (Full Documentary)
History books traditionally depict the pre-Columbus Americas as a pristine wilderness where small native villages lived in harmony with nature. But scientific evidence tells a very different story: When Columbus stepped ashore in 1492, millions of people were already living there. America wasn't exactly a New World, but a very old one whose inhabitants had built a vast infrastructure of cities, orchards, canals and causeways. The English brought honeybees to the Americas for honey, but the bees pollinated orchards along the East Coast. Thanks to the feral honeybees, many of the plants the Europeans brought, like apples and peaches, proliferated. Some 12,000 years ago, North American mammoths, ancient horses, and other large mammals vanished. The first horses in America since the Pleistocene era arrived with Columbus in 1493. Settlers in the Americas told of rivers that had more fish than water. The South American potato helped spark a population explosion in Europe. In 1491, the Americas had few domesticated animals, and used the llama as their beast of burden. In 1491, more people lived in the Americas than in Europe. The first conquistadors were sailors and adventurers. In 1492, the Americas were not a pristine wilderness but a crowded and managed landscape. The now barren Chaco Canyon was once covered with vegetation. Along with crops like wheat, weeds like dandelion were brought to America by Europeans. It’s believed that the domestication of the turkey began in pre-Columbian Mexico, and did not exist in Europe in 1491. By 1500, European settlers and their plants and animals had altered much of the Americas’ landscape. While beans, potatoes, and maize from the Americas became major crops in continental Europe.
Christopher Columbus: What Really Happened
Subscribe for more videos: http://goo.gl/Z8E50 An educational animation which recounts the four voyages of Columbus. Hope you enjoy! Bibliography at bottom of description AUTHOR'S NOTE: This video is meant to give a non-bias account of the events which unfolded when Columbus and his crew made contact with the people of the Caribbean. Of course, I was not able to fit everything into the video; I had to omit details, such as the fact that the Taino were not the only people that Columbus encountered (there were also the Ciguayo tribe and Carib cannibals). A second particular is that not all fault should lie directly on Columbus' shoulders. His crew of 1,200 for the second journey consisted partly of convicts and landless nobles, the worst type of people with which to build a settlement. Another fact is that Columbus grew up in societies (Genoa, then Portugal) that kept domestic slaves. I have no political agenda for making this video. I am a student of history and I have tried to give an account of Columbus' journeys that is as close as we can possibly get to the truth. I will I admit that I am not a fan of Columbus. I think he was cruel, even for his time. We cannot judge a 15th-century human from a 21st-century perspective; but even for the 15th century, he was an awful arbiter. Sources: Bergreen, Laurence. Columbus: The Four Voyages. Viking Penguin, 2011. Carman, Harry J., and Harold C. Syrett. A History of the American People. Vol. 1. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1952. Fernandez-Armesto, Felipe. 1492; The Year the World Began. Harper Collins e-books, 2009. Hale, Edward E. The Life of Christopher Columbus from His Own Letters and Journals. Rockville, Maryland: Arc Manor, 2008. Haywood, John. Historical Atlas of the Medieval World. New York: Metro Books, 2000. Jotischky, Andrew, and Caroline Hull. Historical Atlas of the Medieval World. London: The Penguin Group, 2005. Loewen, James, Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong. New York: Touchstone, 1995. Lybyer, A. H., "The Ottoman Turks and the Routes of Oriental Trade," The English Historical Review, Vol. 30, No. 120. (Oct., 1915), pp. 577-588. Mann, Charles. 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus. New York: Vintage Books, 1995. Morison, Samuel Eliot. Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus. Boston: Little Brown and Co. 1942. Phillips, William & Phillips, Carla, The Worlds of Christopher Columbus. Cambridge University Press, 1992. Pickering, Keith. The Columbus Navigation Homepage. http://www.columbusnavigation.com/cctl.shtml Pohl, John. The Conquistador: 1492-1550. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2001 . Sale, Kirkpatrick. Christopher Columbus and the Conquest of Paradise. London: Tauris Parke Paperbacks, 2006. Scafetta, Joesph Jr. Columbus and the Indians: Friend of Foe? http://www.osia.org/documents/Columbus_FriendorFoe.pdf The Most Important Maps Since the Dawn of Printing, Part I: Tradition and Innovation. Arader Galleries. Udovitch, A. L. '"Levant Trade in the Later Middle Ages'", The American Historical Review, Vol. 91, No. 1 (Feb., 1986), 92. Varela, C. Cristobal Colon: Textos y Documentos Completos. Madrid: Alianza, 1984. Vignaud, Henry. "Columbus: A Spaniard and a Jew", The American Historical Review, Vol. 18, No. 3 (April, 1913), pp. 505-512. Wilford, John Noble. The Mysterious History of Christopher Columbus: An Exploration of the Man, the Myth, the Legacy. (1991) Young, Filson. Christopher Columbus and the New World of His Discovery. Vol. 6. London: E. Grant Richards, 1906.
Views: 2299564 Bad Crayfish Productions
1492 (Columbus sighting land)
The scene of the 1992 film "1492:Conquest of Paradise" when Columbus first sights the New World. Music from the film's soundtrack: "Hispanola" by Vangelis. La escena de la pelicula "1492:La Conquista Del Paraíso" cuando Cristóbal Colón vio America por primera vez.
Views: 585806 babylonianman
Christopher Columbus Discovering America Story
One story of how America was discovered. The credit of the story doesn't belong to me.
Views: 237201 Kyulu88
1492: Christopher Columbus & The Year of Discovery - Part 1
1492 is a significant year in the understanding of world history. This 54 minute 2 part film examines all of the events that led up to Christopher Columbus's discovery of the new world - America. https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFdKnjmeaUvJ4ZJmENHwCCA
7 Civilizations that Reached America before Columbus
7 Civilizations that Reached America before Columbus If you liked the video Thumbs up, share and subscribe. Subscribe: http://goo.gl/zkF8nT Follow us for daily facts: Facebook- https://www.facebook.com/IndexSe7en Tumblr- https://www.tumblr.com/blog/indexse7en Google+- https://goo.gl/FL15Fe Twitter- https://twitter.com/indexse7enTV More Info : Vikings - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norse_colonization_of_the_Americas Siberians - http://siberiantimes.com/science/casestudy/news/n0321-america-first-populated-in-a-single-wave-of-migration-from-siberia-no-more-than-23000-years-ago/ The Knight Templars – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knights_Templar_and_popular_culture Phoenician- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_of_Phoenician_discovery_of_the_Americas The Irish - http://www.examiner.com/article/490-year-old-spanish-documents-describe-an-irish-province-south-carolina Malians – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abu_Bakr_II Polynesians - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pre-Columbian_trans-oceanic_contact_theories SoundTrack:"Mapping the sky" Floating Pyramid (https://soundcloud.com/floatingpyramid/mapping-the-sky) Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 Unported http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ Intro: "Redletter" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Views: 804057 IndexSe7en
1492: Christopher Columbus & The Year of Discovery - Part 2
1492 is a significant year in the understanding of world history. This 54 minute 2 part film examines all of the events that led up to Christopher Columbus's discovery of the new world - America. https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFdKnjmeaUvJ4ZJmENHwCCA
Columbus Song - 1492
in “I Will Be Your Friend: Songs and Activities for Young Peacemakers” Teaching Tolerance - Southern Poverty Law Center 2003 First Edition Words and Music by Nancy Schimmel (Malvina Reynold's daughter). http://www.sisterschoice.com/. The recording is by Sally Rogers. It is on her "What Can One Little Person Do?" CD: http://sallyrogers.com/site/store/what-can-one-little-person-do/. Sally is an amazing award-winning children's musician. Check out her website http://sallyrogers.com.
Views: 217827 RocknMuzic
(America) 1492 pt.1
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IEqlrTeXFBg Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for "fair use" for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use. All copyrighted materials contained herein belong to their respective copyright holders, I do not claim ownership over any of these materials. I realize no profit, monetary or otherwise, from the exhibition of these videos. chemtrail video playlist http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLF5EFB274C39D1C87 What is HAARP..Playlist http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL3239AD4379B60DA4 Fluoride http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLF72E08966834D77F Pepsico uses aborted fetal cells when researching the effect of flavour enhancers. See the article below; http://www.thetruthseeker.co.uk/?p=31864 FEMA CAMPS ORDERS : http://info.publicintelligence.net/USArmy-InternmentResettlement.pdf Please like share and subscribe Get Healthy Now http://www.loseweightfastreview.net
Views: 36021 TheKimrob
Voyages of Columbus
Columbus set sail and found land in the Western Sea, but he did not find the riches of China or India and his discoveries turned into a big disappointment
Views: 23490 TzionTzion
Americas: 1492-2015 (Every Year)
The changing political landscape of the North and South American continents from their discovery in 1492 to 2015. ---Abbreviations & Symbols--- * = Dominion within the British Empire CR = Costa Rica Dom. Rep. = Dominican Republic FRCA = Federal Republic of Central America NL = Netherlands St K&N = Saint Kitts and Nevis St V&G = Saint Vincent and the Grenadines TT = Trinidad and Tobago UK = United Kingdom USA = United States of America ---Music--- Ivan Torrent - Human Legacy
Views: 251989 Ollie Bye
Vangelis - Conquest of Paradise 1992
Vangelis - Conquest of Paradise 1992 (Soundtrack of the film/movie 1492; 500 anniversary of Christopher Columbus' voyage to America) Using a 'pseudo-Latin invented language (Instrumental) In noreni peripe, in noreni cora, tiramine perito, ne domina. In noreni peripe, in noreni cora, tiramine perito, ne domina. (Instrumental) In noreni peripe, in noreni cora, tiramine perito, ne domina. (Instrumental) In romine tirmeno, ne romine tofa, imagine promeno perimenti ra. (Instrumental)
Views: 178284 fritz51371
1492: Columbus and the Legacy of Genocide
Nican Tlaca University lecture on the history of Columbus and genocide. https://www.facebook.com/NicanTlaca https://www.NicanTlaca.com
Views: 27283 NicanTlacaUniversity
From Columbus to Coelho, the first expeditions to America (1492-1502)
An animated map of the first expeditions to America Columbus ´ discovery of a new sea route to America and the voyages of the explorers Cabotto,Lavrador Ojeda,Pinzon, Bastidas,Vespucci, Cabral and Coelho.
Views: 11 Corvus
Web Originals : Did Columbus Really Discover America? | History
Did Columbus really discover America? Get the full story. Subscribe for more History: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC9MAhZQQd9egwWCxrwSIsJQ?sub_confirmation=1 Check out exclusive HISTORY videos and full episodes: http://www.history.com/videos Get daily updates on history: http://www.history.com/news/ Check out our Facebook games, and other exclusive content: http://www.facebook.com/History Keep up to date with everything HISTORY by following us on Twitter: http://twitter.com/History Get the latest on show premieres, special events, sweepstakes and more. Sign up for HISTORY email updates http://www.history.com/emails Follow HISTORY on StumbleUpon: http://www.stumbleupon.com/channel/HISTORY HISTORY®, now reaching more than 98 million homes, is the leading destination for award-winning original series and specials that connect viewers with history in an informative, immersive, and entertaining manner across all platforms. The network’s all-original programming slate features a roster of hit series, epic miniseries, and scripted event programming. Visit us at HISTORY.com for more info.
Views: 27311 HISTORY
Columbus Day | Song Lyrics | Song for Kids | Preschool Songs
The Kiboomers! Columbus Day! Song Lyrics! ★Get this song on iTunes: https://itunes.apple.com/us/album/holiday-songs-for-preschool/id1034636054 Kid Song Lyrics, Music & Video. 3,000+ Children Songs to Discover on http://www.BusSongs.com Watch our 'Columbus Day' video with song lyrics and sing along with the kids! 'COLUMBUS DAY SONG LYRICS FOR KIDS': | 'CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS SONG FOR KIDS' Oh Columbus sailed the ocean in 1492 With the Niña, and the Pinta and the Santa Maria too Oh Columbus found America in 1492 With the Niña, and the Pinta and the Santa Maria too On October 12th we remember Columbus sailed the ocean blue With the Niña, and the Pinta and the Santa Maria too ********* We're Social, too! website: http://the kiboomers.com facebook: http://facebook.com/kiboomu twitter: http://twitter.com/kiboomu pinterest: http://pinterest.com/kiboomu ******* Song: "Columbus Day Song" (Holiday Songs for Kids) Music Band: The Kiboomers Animation: Subcutaneo Vocals & Arrangement: Ellie Moss and Christopher Pennington from The Kiboomers
The REAL History Of Christopher Columbus
Monday, October 12th is Columbus Day, which we have celebrated in this country since the eighteenth century… and that’s probably long enough. When you find out the actual facts of what Columbus did when he got to America, you’ll find one of the darkest chapters in American history. Cenk Uygur and John Iadarola (Think Tank), hosts of the The Young Turks, break it down. Tell us what you think in the comment section below. "Second, Columbus wasn't a hero. When he set foot on that sandy beach in the Bahamas on October 12, 1492, Columbus discovered that the islands were inhabited by friendly, peaceful people called the Lucayans, Taínos and Arawaks. Writing in his diary, Columbus said they were a handsome, smart and kind people. He noted that the gentle Arawaks were remarkable for their hospitality. "They offered to share with anyone and when you ask for something, they never say no," he said. The Arawaks had no weapons; their society had neither criminals, prisons nor prisoners. They were so kind-hearted that Columbus noted in his diary that on the day the Santa Maria was shipwrecked, the Arawaks labored for hours to save his crew and cargo. The native people were so honest that not one thing was missing. Columbus was so impressed with the hard work of these gentle islanders, that he immediately seized their land for Spain and enslaved them to work in his brutal gold mines. Within only two years, 125,000 (half of the population) of the original natives on the island were dead.”* Read more here: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/eric-kasum/columbus-day-a-bad-idea_b_742708.html ********** The Young Turks October 6, 2015 Hour 1 https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLTpcK80irdQg44dQUiJtAzLsSgLCKyU84 The REAL History Of Christopher Columbus https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5FBUEfdPDOQ&index=1&list=PLTpcK80irdQg44dQUiJtAzLsSgLCKyU84 Eric Bolling Against Gun Background Checks Because Poor Can't Afford Them https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x4PBw5nMjsI&index=2&list=PLTpcK80irdQg44dQUiJtAzLsSgLCKyU84 Media Fails To Point Out Benghazi Smear Campaign Because Neutrality https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AO_dUDDRZsw&index=3&list=PLTpcK80irdQg44dQUiJtAzLsSgLCKyU84 Dr. Ben Carson Preaching On Guns https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZEV2EBpjHnA&index=4&list=PLTpcK80irdQg44dQUiJtAzLsSgLCKyU84 ********** The Largest Online News Show in the World. Hosted by Cenk Uygur and Ana Kasparian. LIVE STREAMING weekdays 6-8pm ET. http://www.youtube.com/theyoungturks/live Young Turk (n), 1. Young progressive or insurgent member of an institution, movement, or political party. 2. Young person who rebels against authority or societal expectations. (American Heritage Dictionary) ********** Get The Young Turks Mobile App Today! Download the iOS version here: https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/the-young-turks/id412793195?ls=1&mt=8 Download the Android version here: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.tyt
Views: 379842 The Young Turks
Christopher Columbus | Native Americans | One Word | Cut
Fear Pong is now a game! Get it here: http://www.fearponggame.com » SUBSCRIBE: http://bit.ly/CutSubscribe Watch more One Word: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLJic7bfGlo3p3MZQ28prCQxWSZQTytqF8 About One Word: Cut invites people from different groups to weigh in on one word--and their responses show us just how complicated and unique we all are. Don't forget to subscribe and follow us! Official Site: https://www.cut.com/ Facebook: http://cut.com/facebook Twitter: https://twitter.com/Cut Instagram: http://cut.com/instagram Snapchat: @watchcut Cut Swag: http://cut.com/shop About Cut: Small questions have powerful effects when they go viral. Cut spreads stories for fun, for serious, and for real– bringing the internet together one awkward moment at a time. Produced, directed, and edited by https://cut.com Want to work with us? http://cut.com/hiring Want to be in a video? http://cut.com/casting Want to sponsor a video? http://cut.com/sponsorships For licensing inquiries: http://cut.com/licensing About this video: We invited Native Americans to respond to "Christopher Columbus." These are their responses. Talent: Matt Michelle Jonathan Brooke Natasha Adria Kathryn Aeyana Cherry Columbia Walter Alec Katie Gracie Naomi Fredrick Ulysses Jonathon Music Heights by Keen Collective https://www.marmosetmusic.com/ Get Cut swag here: http://bit.ly/BuyCut Christopher Columbus | Native Americans | One Word | Cut https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fYTXRDtYzYc Cut https://www.youtube.com/watchcut
Views: 1030034 Cut
7 Reasons Why Columbus NEVER Discovered America
Most are taught in school that Christopher Columbus discovered America... But did he really discover it? Was he the first European in the Americas? The answer to both those questions is "no." So what was going on in Americas before 1492? Who really discovered America? Well, many people before him. Western Europeans simply hadn’t heard from the rest of the world yet, or just believed what they wanted to believe... FOLLOW THE HYBRID LIBRARIAN: Subscribe ▶ http://bit.ly/daretoknow Facebook ▶ http://on.fb.me/170IAJK Twitter ▶ http://bit.ly/14vhMgZ Google+ ▶ http://bit.ly/15eoHil Tumblr ▶ http://bit.ly/11UtNr1 HYBRID LIBRARIAN's new T-shirts & merch are now available! (Both shops work wherever you're from): ▶ US shop: http://bit.ly/1A1MET0 ▶ EU shop: http://bit.ly/W6t2zF Click below to unlock the power of YouTube and become a member of Hybrid's community at Maker Studios! ▶ http://awe.sm/jFBzN For business inquiries and music collaborations, please contact me at: hybridlibrarian@gmail.com Kevin ツ (Hybrid Librarian©) Edited by Stephen Schmidt. Music credits: “Elysium 2", by Johannes Bornlöf. FYI… #7 http://history.howstuffworks.com/history-vs-myth/clovis.htm http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/02/070223-first-americans.html http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/clovis-people-not-1st-to-arrive-in-north-america-1.1235030 http://www.nytimes.com/1989/05/30/science/findings-plunge-archeology-americas-into-turmoil-estimates-first-asian-migration.html http://earlyworldhistory.blogspot.fr/2012/03/first-americans.html #6 http://io9.gizmodo.com/are-all-native-americans-descended-from-the-clovis-peop-1522343687 http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/the-clovis-point-and-the-discovery-of-americas-first-culture-3825828/ http://www.voanews.com/a/dna-evidence-clovis-people-ancestors-to-all-native-americans/1850386.html http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v506/n7487/full/nature13025.html http://www.seeker.com/did-a-comet-really-chill-and-kill-clovis-culture-1767263547.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Younger_Dryas_impact_hypothesis #5 http://mentalfloss.com/article/33584/he-could-have-discovered-america-he-wanted-see-his-parents http://www.canadianmysteries.ca/sites/vinland/archives/chapterinbook/3876en.html http://www.ultimatehistoryproject.com/short-on-curiosity.html http://thelastdiadoch.tumblr.com/post/112370748902/bjarni-herj%C3%B3lfsson-the-first-known-european-to-set https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bjarni_Herj%C3%B3lfsson #4 http://www.history.com/news/the-viking-explorer-who-beat-columbus-to-america http://mentalfloss.com/article/52993/11-leif-erikson-facts-leif-erikson-day http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2015/10/151011-columbus-day-leif-erikson-italian-americans-holiday-history/ http://www.greenland.com/en/about-greenland/culture-spirit/history/the-viking-period/leif-eriksson/ http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3518739/Did-Vikings-discover-America-Settlement-unearthed-Newfoundland-suggests-Scandinavian-warriors-set-foot-New-World-500-years-Columbus.html http://thecarelesswhisper.com/2016/11/23/what-did-leif-eriksons-viking-settlers-call-their-north-american-home/ #3 http://www.nytimes.com/2006/01/17/world/who-discovered-america-zheng-who.html http://io9.gizmodo.com/does-this-map-prove-that-china-discovered-america-befor-1442911790 http://www.vicchi.org/2013/10/21/if-columbus-or-the-vikings-didnt-discover-america-maybe-the-chinese-did-or-maybe-not/ https://www.1843magazine.com/content/places/rosie-blau/rewriting-history-map https://www.yahoo.com/news/blogs/sideshow/chinese-explorer-may-have-discovered-america-before-columbus--according-to-new-book-201051307.html?ref=gs http://www.geographicus.com/blog/rare-and-antique-maps/fou-sang-or-fusang-a-5th-century-chinese-colony-in-western-america/ https://archive.org/details/fusangdiscovery00lelarich #2 http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2004/11/11/1235290.htm https://psmag.com/how-we-discovered-that-christopher-columbus-didn-t-get-to-america-first-3a5b4e69035#.708dlsfc2 http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/people/columbus-christopher-voyages-to-new-world.html http://www.vox.com/2014/10/12/6962795/columbus-day-canadian-thanksgiving http://latinamericanhistory.about.com/od/thevoyagesofcolumbus/ http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/esp_colon_3.htm #1 http://www.smithsonianmag.com/people-places/columbus-confusion-about-the-new-world-140132422/ http://www.nytimes.com/1989/11/25/opinion/l-what-did-columbus-know-when-did-he-know-it-481689.html http://history.stackexchange.com/questions/10298/why-did-christopher-columbus-think-he-had-arrived-near-japan http://www.tweentribune.com/article/tween78/why-christopher-columbus-was-perfect-icon-new-nation-looking-hero/ http://www.historytoday.com/tony-aldous/john-cabot-sails-north-america
Views: 60754 Hybrid Librarian
Origins of European exploration in the Americas
In the late 1400s, several developments in Europe paved the way for European exploration in the Americas. In this video, Kim discusses how Portugal led the charge with new navigation technology, and how the unification of Spain set the stage for Columbus's voyage in 1492.
Views: 58088 Khan Academy
Columbus- Discoverer of America | Christopher Columbus | Christopher Columbus Voyage to a New World
Personalities and Events: Columbus Day | Christopher Columbus: First Landing of Columbus on the Shores of the New World; Observed by Various countries in the Americas, Italy, Spain, Various Little Italy’s around the world. Type: Historical Significance: Celebrations honoring Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in 1492 Date: October 12 (actual/traditional); second Monday in October (observed in the United States) The music of the video was taken from the channel: longzijun Audio Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eh3AuwiG9L0 Video by Edupedia World (www.edupediaworld.com), Free Online Education. Download our App : https://goo.gl/1b6LBg Click here https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLJumA3phskPExt5LAV-hJ2MtAXcfCKSYJ for more interesting videos on Personalities and Events. All Rights Reserved.
Views: 1834 Edupedia World
Charles C. Mann: 1492 Before and After
No name seems more inextricably linked to the grand hemispheric experiment of "America" than Christopher Columbus. Seen alternately as explorer and conqueror, hero and villain, Columbus endures as an essential character in America's national story: his "discovery" of America in 1492 changed the course of history. Who better to interpret this undeniable influence than author Charles C. Mann? A correspondent for The Atlantic, Science, and Wired, Mann authored 1491, an award-winning study of the pre-Columbian Americas, and 1493: Uncovering the New World Columbus Created. Both of these books take a riveting look at the earliest days of globalization, introducing a new generation to the conundrum of the "New World." Mann shares an expansive and compelling vision of the "ecological convulsion" of European trade practices that continues to shape our world.
3rd August 1492: Christopher Columbus sets sail from Spain
At 8am on the 3rd August 1492, Christopher Columbus set sail from the Spanish port of Palos de la Frontera on the voyage that would take him to the Americas. While Columbus captained the Santa María, Palos natives commonly referred to as the Pinzón brothers captained the Pinta and the Santa Clara which is better known by its nickname the Niña. A third Pinzón brother, was the master of the Pinta. None of the ships belonged to Columbus himself and, despite the voyage officially being supported by the Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella, they forced the inhabitants of the port to contribute towards the costs associated with supplying and equipping them. In the case of the Pinta, its owners had even been forced to send the ship on the voyage against their wishes, leading to suspicions of sabotage when the rudder broke after just three days at sea. The ships sailed first to the Canary Islands, which they reached after six days. Here they repaired the rudder of the Pinta and restocked with provisions for the Atlantic crossing, which they began on the 6th September from the port of San Sebastián de la Gomera. However, it is Palos de la Frontera that holds the real title as the starting point of Columbus’ transatlantic voyage. The town also played a significant role in the later Christianisation of the New World since it continued to be a departure point for later westward voyages and was the location of the Franciscan Rábida Monastery that sent some of the first missionaries to the Americas.
Views: 1306 HistoryPod
Christopher Columbus
Views: 10513 Edward's History Hub
History Buffs: 1492 Conquest  of Paradise
Well it had to happen. I just had to find a history movie I hated even more than The Patriot! But you know what's funny, you'd think that casting probably THE most French actor you could possibly think of to play the most famous Italian explorer in history would piss me off. But no.....it doesn't ● Like us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/HistoryBuffsLondon ● Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/HistoryBuffs_ ________________________________________­_________________________________ - Check out These Videos - Zulu Review - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VygWpmwBO8M Gladiator Review - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DVAxzf1HdH4 We Were Soldiers - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6ABJVrRfr2Q Kingdom of Heaven – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mTjUu1Bt29o The Last Samurai – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-buQSp6wOMc Why Game of Thrones reads like a History Book and not a Fantasy Epic - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=knGeCNaAdAU The Patriot - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gBuvmidN8Dc The Ghost and the Darkness - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4o5QWPKL74E 1492: Conquest of Paradise (in French, 1492 : Christophe Colomb) is an epic 1992 adventure/drama film directed by Ridley Scott and written by Roselyne Bosch, which tells the fictionalized story of the discovery of the New World by the Genoan explorer Christopher Columbus (Gérard Depardieu) and the effect this had on the indigenous peoples of the Americas. The film was released by Paramount to celebrate the 500th anniversary of Columbus' voyage.
Views: 614533 History Buffs
Columbus-1492 The Conquest of Paradise
The Conquest of Paradise by the Spaniards.
Views: 673195 John Raga
Kolumbus entdeckt Amerika (1492)
Christoph Kolumbus (ital. Cristoforo Colombo, span. Cristóbal Colón, port. Cristóvão Colombo, engl. Christopher Columbus latinisiert Columbus, eingedeutscht Kolumbus; * 1451 (?) in Genua; † 20. Mai 1506 in Valladolid) war ein genuesischer Seefahrer in spanischen Diensten, dem gemeinhin die Entdeckung Amerikas zugeschrieben wird.
Views: 87444 MetallGER
The Great Explorers - Ep4of6 - Christopher Columbus
Documentary in a series on great explorers covering Christopher Columbus.
Views: 30768 Clark's History Reels
Columbus Day - Learning about Christopher Columbus
Learn about Christopher Columbus and his explorations with this video. Christopher Columbus sailed the ocean blue in 1492 to discover a western route to Asia, but discovered the Americas by mistake. The United States now celebrates Columbus day each year in honor of the discovery of the Americas. Visit our channel for more great videos for kids and children - http://www.youtube.com/kidslearningvideo Images licensed from Scrappin' doodles --Subscribe to Kids Learning Videos-- http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=kidslearningvideo --Educational Toys for Kids-- https://www.amazon.com/shop/kidslearningvideos --Popular Videos and Songs— Animal Sounds Song - https://youtu.be/V7R_M52EAkI?list=PLsujH_u89cJ-_59BMCSMdDXdwDlUJ1LO9 The Three Little Pigs - https://youtu.be/HtHjB6rRmQc?list=PLsujH_u89cJ9Qn3J0u_qlCPUrTZafhJSQ Old MacDonald Had a Farm - https://youtu.be/o2xEz9ceqpo?list=PLsujH_u89cJ-_59BMCSMdDXdwDlUJ1LO9 --Check out our Website— http://www.kidslearningvideos.com --Follow Kids Learning Videos-- Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/KidsLearningVideo Roku: https://channelstore.roku.com/details/60297/kids-learning-videos
Views: 237264 Kids Learning Videos
Biography of Christopher Columbus for Children: Famous Explorers for Kids - FreeSchool
Christopher Columbus has long been touted as the explorer who discovered America and proved the world was round. That view of things is not correct, however! Come and learn about the voyages of Christopher Columbus, his ships, and what really happened in this historically accurate and child-appropriate biography of the famous explorer. Like this video if you want to see more BIOGRAPHIES! Subscribe to FreeSchool: https://www.youtube.com/user/watchfreeschool?sub_confirmation=1 Visit us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/watchFreeSchool Check our our companion channel, FreeSchool Mom! https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCTcEtHRQhqiCZIIb77LyDmA And our NEW channel for little ones, FreeSchool Early Birds! https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC3OV62x86XHwaqsxLsuy8dA Music: Jaunty Gumption - Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Other music in this video: Tu Pauperum Refugium by Josquin Des Prez.
Views: 394135 Free School
Columbus, de Gama, and Zheng He! 15th Century Mariners. Crash Course: World History #21
In which John Green teaches you about the beginning of the so-called Age of Discovery. You've probably heard of Christopher Columbus, who "discovered" America in 1492, but what about Vasco da Gama? How about Zheng He? Columbus gets a bad rap from many modern historians, but it turns out he was pretty important as far as the history of the world goes. That said, he wasn't the only pioneer plying the seas in the 1400s. In Portugal, Vasco da Gama was busy integrating Europe into the Indian Ocean Trade by sailing around Africa. Chinese admiral Zheng He was also traveling far and wide in the largest wooden ships ever built. Columbus, whether portrayed as hero or villain, is usually credited as the great sailor of the 15th century, but he definitely wasn't the only contender. What better way to settle this question than with a knock-down, drag-out, no holds barred, old-fashioned battle royal? We were going to make it a cage match, but welding is EXPENSIVE. Resources: The Age of Reconnaissance by JH Parry - An explanation of the technologies that made these voyages possible, and a nice detailed record of many of the important voyages. http://dft.ba/-discovery When China Ruled the Sea by Louise Levathes: A history of the Ming dynasty's ventures into maritime exploration. http://dft.ba/-zhenghedragon Unknown Seas by Ronald Watkins: A highly readable account of Vasco da Gama's introduction of europe into the Indian Ocean trade. http://dft.ba/-vasco Crash Course World History is now available on DVD! http://store.dftba.com/products/crashcourse-world-history-the-complete-series-dvd-set Follow us! @thecrashcourse @realjohngreen @raoulmeyer @crashcoursestan @saysdanica @thoughtbubbler Like us! ‪http://www.facebook.com/youtubecrashcourse Follow us again! ‪http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support CrashCourse on Patreon: http://patreon.com/crashcourse
Views: 2517811 CrashCourse
Africans  Came Before Columbus
Dr. Ivan Van Sertima on The Gil Noble Show circa 1989.....Gil Noble, producer and host of the public affairs program “Like It Is,” has interviewed famous African Americans like Malcolm X, Martin Luther King Jr., Fannie Lou Hamer and Paul Robeson. During his career, he has worked to correct negative media representations of African Americans and has promoted ethics and objectivity in journalism. Noble was born in Harlem to Jamaican immigrants Gilbert and Iris Noble. As a teenager, Noble was inspired by pianist Erroll Garner and decided to pursue a career in music. He formed the Gil Noble Trio and played in clubs around New York City while attending City College. After graduating, he worked for Union Carbide and modeled on the side. He met his wife Jean, also a model, during this time. Noble attempted to break into broadcast by doing voiceovers and television commercials. He became a part-time announcer for WLIB, a Harlem radio station, in 1962. While at WLIB, he also reported, read newscasts, serviced the Associated Press teletype machine and tracked interview tapes. This experience gave him working knowledge of all aspects of a newsroom operation. In 1967, Noble auditioned for a TV reporter position at WABC. On his second audition assignment, he was called to cover violence in Newark, New Jersey’s Central Ward. Blacks had been shut off by a National Guard barricade while white city officials and journalists stood at the perimeter. Noble was able to cross the barricade and get the story from the black community’s perspective. Because of his reports, he was hired. By 1968, he was anchoring weekend newscasts. At that time, WABC created a black-oriented program in response to the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Actor Robert Hooks was the host and Noble was the interviewer. When Hooks accepted an acting job, Noble replaced him as host. In the beginning, “Like It Is” focused on mostly entertainers, however, when Noble became producer in 1975, he turned its focus to the more serious issues of the black experience. Over the years, Noble saw the documentary as the central focus and most rewarding aspect of his career. “Like It Is” has produced the largest collection of programs and documentaries on the African-American experience in the last half of the 20th century. He says documentaries “remain a powerful weapon to change false values, correct historical error and cure the poison of prejudice in the minds of black and white Americans.” In 2002, he survived an attempt by WABC to cancel his contract and show. Supporters of the show held rallies in its defense and the show remains on the air.
Views: 154650 Shen Pe Uts Taa-Neter
1492 Columbus Arrival
Columbus Arrival
Views: 2676 malemokischmoo
Ancient Africans Discovered America Thousands of Years Ago
Africans had frequently sailed across the Atlantic to the Americas, thousands of years before Columbus and indeed before Christ. The great ancient civilizations of Egypt and West Africa traveled to the Americas, contributing immensely to early American civilization by importing the art of pyramid building, political systems and religious practices as well as mathematics, writing and a sophisticated calendar. The strongest evidence of African presence in America before Columbus comes from the pen of Columbus himself. In 1920, a renowned American historian and linguist, Leo Weiner of Harvard University, in his book, Africa and the discovery of America, explained how Columbus noted in his journal that Native Americans had confirmed that “black skinned people had come from the south-east in boats, trading in gold-tipped spears.” Sources: https://ancient-code.com/ https://www.globalresearch.ca http://www.ancientpages.com 💜 Subscribe and like if you enjoyed the video. Thank you 💜 Join our Spiritual Kingdom on: ☀️ Official Website: http://universeinsideyou.net/ 🌺 Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/universalloving 🌺 Facebook Group: https://www.facebook.com/183801149985... 🌺 Google+: https://plus.google.com/u/0/+Universe... 🌺 Twitter: https://twitter.com/universeinsideu 🌺 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/spiritualki... 🌐If you wish to support my work and help me: https://www.paypal.me/UniverseInsideYou I would be forever grateful 🙏💗 You can help by translating or adding CC to the videos: http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs_p... 💫 Videos on #spirituality, #consciousness, #meditation, #mindfulness and much more. Let's expand our #esoteric, #psychological, #philosophical and #extraterrestrial knowledge together. Subscribe to Universe Inside You 💫
Views: 277846 Universe Inside You
Columbus Day Vlog - What happened in 1492? Who really found America first?
We vlog about Christopher Columbus and what he did in 1492, and if this is significant or not in history? Subscribe: http://www.youtube.com/c/thoughtsanyone1 Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/anythoughts2 Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/anythoughtsanyone Google +: http://www.google.com/+thoughtsanyone1 Website: http://www.thoughtsanyone.com 1492 Columbus Sailed the Ocean Blue 1001 Eric the Red Vikings come to America
Views: 50 Any Thoughts?
Leif Eriksson - The First European in North America
Learn more at: http://www.vikingrivercruises.com/why-viking/index.html Thanks to a rhyme learned in grade school, many people believe that Columbus first discovered America in 1492. But this Viking Cruises® video chronicles how, nearly 500 years before the Italian explorer sailed the ocean blue, a 25-year-old Norse navigator named Leif Eriksson and a crew of 35 men set sail to explore the seas west of Greenland. When Eriksson arrived on the shores of what he called “Vinland,” he became the first European to set foot in North America. Narrated by Viking Cruises Sr. Vice President Karine Hagen, this short film traces Eriksson’s history and his voyage into immortality. The son of intrepid Viking explorer Erik the Red, Eriksson led the historic journey from Greenland to North America through uncharted waters without a compass. Although the discovery was celebrated for centuries in Norse legend and stories, many doubted the accuracy of those accounts. Doubts about Eriksson’s discovery were finally dispelled in 1960, when modern-day explorers Helge and Anne Ingstad identified a Norse settlement located at the northern tip of Newfoundland that dates back to the exact time of Eriksson’s voyage. In the United States, the achievement of the Viking explorer with adventure and exploration in his blood is commemorated every year on October 9th. At Viking Cruises, we cherish our Viking heritage and connection to seafaring visionaries like Leif Eriksson. Karine Hagen of Viking River Cruises is your host.
Views: 110305 Viking River Cruises
UFO Diary By Christopher Columbus 1492
I have videos of presidents, air force officers, generals & astronauts all admitting aliens & their space crafts are here.Also 30 new 2010-11 videos from the History Ch that shows solid evidence the aliens were here thousands of years in the past.See the truth about the aliens explained better than ever before at my free website alienspaceshipidentified Google search engine. I swear if you read the entire website & watch all of the video evidence you will understand the truth about the aliens.
The discovery of America (spanish close captioned)
http://translate.google.es/translate?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.artehistoria.com%2Fhistesp%2Fvideos%2F95.htm&sl=es&tl=en&hl=es&ie=UTF-8 The early morning of August 3 of 1492 set sail of the port of Palos Christopher Columbus in command of three ships and some ninety men, with the aim of finding a west path towards the Indies. After a stop in the Canary Islands, sailed to the West. There were three ships, two caravels and a nao, with provisions for one year. La Pinta was property of Gomez Rascón and Cristóbal Quintero, and we do not know if it was seized or leased, although he said "He didn't want to go to that trip after breaking the gobernalle." It was a good sailing ship and its captain, Pinzon, always tended to pre-empt the other ships. The Niña was from Moguer owned by Juan Niño and actually called Santa Clara, and was paid for by the people of Palos. It was perhaps the best condition seafaring vessel. The Santa Maria, aka the Gallega, was Juan de la Cosa, natural from Santoña but neighbor to the Puerto de Santa Maria. Colon, who captains, got it while it was chartered in Rio Tinto on trade mission. It was very heavy and "unfit for the job of discovering" in the words of Columbus. The three boats were well matched, Construction sober and proper equipment. The sailors were people of every type and condition, paid by the Crown. They wern't soldiers but sailors, wearing a blusón, a wool hat and barefoot. Two hours after midnight on October 12 of 1492, finally showed up the coast. It was an island called Guanahani. In the light of the day, fell to earth Columbus and some men. Columbus quickly made the formal ceremony the inauguration of the island on behalf of the King and Queen, their lords. Although Columbus did not know, he had just discovered a new world.
Views: 32687 artehistoriausa
Christopher Columbus was Portuguese.wmv Colombo era português
O Grande Enigma: Cristóvão Colombo era português... The Great Enigma: Christopher Columbus was Portuguese ... Christopher Columbus discovered America in 1492, at the behest of the Kings of Spain, so far all right, but what is its true origin, this would be a controversial issue, and many hypotheses have emerged, but the most credible is that he was indeed "Portuguese".   With this documentation, is almost evident that the great discoverer of the Americas was in fact the Portuguese citizen, "Salvador Fernandes Zarco," was Fernandes, because he was the son of Fernando, and Zarco, being his mother Isabel Gonçalves Zarco, daughter of João Gonçalves Zarco, who Tristao Vaz Teixeira discovered in 1418, the archipelago of Madeira. Here in Madeira, Porto Santo, Christopher Columbus, by the way (Salvador Fernandes Zarco), after-married Felipa Perestrello (daughter of another great browser, Perestrelo first captain donee of Porto Santo Island) for a long time had access to documentation left by the father. In short: Christopher Columbus (Salvador Fernandes Zarco) was Portuguese, born in Cuba village, so Foc, Alentejo, Portugal, and therefore named the now famous island in Cuba Caribbean. Columbus always hid their origins and true identity and in which recent researchers concluded that he was born in this town of Cuba in Alentejo, and the day of tribute to him by the city of Cuba, was on the day corresponding to 514 years when he arrived the Caribbean island and which has the famous name of Cuba. Therefore, there is and always will be a great controversy as to its origin, but many have very likely analysis, since it is not clear his birth in Genoa, which many said was his humble origins dai comes the question: how he being a humble layer could have married a lady of high social strain Portuguese? Like him, a browser was not accepted by the Kings of Portugal for your dream trip because Portugal knew the route to India and the lands which later was called Brazil, he went to Spain and there the King did not want him, but the Queen Isabella of Spain accepted and gave him the three ships "Santa Maria, Pinta and Nina," and the trip was financed by Genoese bankers in Seville, hence they probably have spread the news that he was born in Genoa. It is so confusing that statement, that because he was silent as to say their nationality, more because always have been a real "feud" between Portugal and Spain, who chose not to abort the idea that he was Genoese, and died poor and abandoned, but in the belief that he had discovered the Chinese Empire domains and not the American continent, whose name was even given to America because he was so excluded that the letters of recognition made by Amerigo Vespucci, considering that this was who designed the new continent was given the land in general the name of America, eternal glory to his cartographer Amerigo Vespucci and not "Colombias" as it should have been, for the mess you made. Thus says: Vasco Marques Paulo, "Portugal gave new worlds to the world" and was shown that: Christopher Columbus was Portuguese, born in Cuba, Alentejo, Portugal therefore more a Lusitanian heroic "Foc". Discoverers in the Seven Seas and the First to reach the four corners of the earth; this makes -In lead to the conclusion that: PORTUGAL ONLY GAVE NEW WORLDS TO THE WORLD!
Views: 11030 pauloholydiver
1-1 Native American Cultures Before 1492
Ranney Men's Lacrosse 6-2 win over Pennington on April 3, 2013.
Views: 11956 digihistory
Steven Spielberg Jewish Film Archive - Columbus And The Jews
Columbus And The Jews 1987 English 3:20 min. Documents Christopher Columbus's travels to the new world. Includes illustrations of Jews in Spain during the Golden Age and of the Expulsion in 1492. קולומבוס והיהודים 1987 אנגלית 3:20 דקות מתעד' מסעותיו של כריסטופר קולומבוס לעולם החדש. כולל איורים של יהודים בספרד בתקופת תור הזהב ושל הגירוש ב1492.
Social Studies Songs For Kids - Christopher Columbus Song - With Lyrics - Kids educational videos
Christopher Columbus - 1492 - Social Studies Songs for Kids - Kids educational videos - kid friendly
Views: 174522 Kids Learning
The Columbian Exchange: Crash Course World History #23
In which John Green teaches you about the changes wrought by contact between the Old World and the New. John does this by exploring the totally awesome history book "The Columbian Exchange" by Alfred Cosby, Jr. After Columbus "discovered" the Americas, European conquerors, traders, and settlers brought all manner of changes to the formerly isolated continents. Disease and invasive plant and animal species remade the New World, usually in negative ways. While native people, plants, and animals were being displaced in the Americas, the rest of the world was benefitting from American imports, especially foods like maize, tomatoes, potatoes, pineapple, blueberries, sweet potatoes, and manioc. Was the Columbian Exchange a net positive? It's debatable. So debate. Resources: The Columbian Exchange, by Alfred Cosby, Jr: http://dft.ba/-columbian Crash Course World History is now available on DVD! http://store.dftba.com/products/crashcourse-world-history-the-complete-series-dvd-set Follow us! @thecrashcourse @realjohngreen @raoulmeyer @crashcoursestan @saysdanica @thoughtbubbler Like us! ‪http://www.facebook.com/youtubecrashcourse Follow us again! ‪http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support Crash Course on Patreon: http://patreon.com/crashcourse
Views: 2614841 CrashCourse
Negros were the Native Americans - Slave in your own house.  Roman Jew Colony in America 700AD
Just a little discussion and evidence of the dark skin tribes in America before Columbus and the negro european aristrocracy of medievel times and before. Also a little background on the City of Calalus a Roman Jew colony in Americ from 700 AD to 900 AD. Know who you are and what you are not.... Kurimeo Tell you........ Thnaks for the support if you like the video subscribe to the channel, more videos coming up.
Views: 50280 Kurimeo Ahau
The Beginning Of America: Who Got To The Shores First?
Always thought that Columbus discovered America? Think again, watch my video and discover who got to the new world first. Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer, navigator and colonizer, born in the Republic of Genoa 1451.He is most famous for sailing across the Atlantic Ocean and claiming parts of America for the Spanish empire in 1492. He and his crew sailed to Central America, Venezuela, greater And Lesser Antilles, San Salvador and Hispaniola. He initiated the colonisation of the new world. However Columbus was not the first to explore the new land, there were according to historians many other explorers that may of discovered the continent. But Columbus's adventures led to the first lasting European contact with America, which is why his story is classed as the start of the Colonial Period. So if Columbus did not truly discover the new world, who did? Well America is named after Amerigo Vespucci, who was an Italian explorer and navigator. He demonstrated in 1502 that Brazil and the West Indies did not represent Asia's eastern outskirts as initially thought from Columbus's voyages. Because of this the continent became termed "America" after Vespucci first name. But although America was named after him, he nor Columbus discovered The continent for the first time. The Chinese have been suggested to of found the new world before Columbus according to Gavin Menzies book -1421- the year china discovered America. Menzies suggests that a 600 year old copy of a map discovered in a second hand book shop proves that the Chinese discovered the new wold years before Columbus did. The explorer was Admiral Zheng He that apparently charted and mapped the new world with some detail. An even earlier story of the discovery of America happens, nearly 500 years before Christopher Columbus set sail across the Atlantic. A Norse explorer named Leif Ericson according to the Sagas of Icelanders, landed on the shores of North America. He established a Norse settlement at Vinland, tentatively identified with the Norse L'Anse aux Meadows on the northern tip of Newfoundland in modern-day Canada. There is even a story in Wales suggesting that Madoc a Welsh prince sailed to the new world in 1170.Or maybe the Irish Saint Brendan, an Irish monk who in the sixth century is said to have undertaken an ambitious voyage. His legendary island of the blessed has been linked to North America. Even the ancient Hebrews, Japanese and Polynesians may of got there first. So, if Saint Brendan existed then the Irish should be prized with discovery of the new world, if he didn't, then the Vikings should take the credit. But Columbus did start the colonisation that became modern day America. So what they teach us in school is actually incorrect, Columbus discovered parts of America that where already colonised by the native Americans. From which he committed atrocities against native peoples on the islands and decimated their populations. But the reason why he is famed for discovering America is the transition from a isolated and relatively primitive region, to the modern nation-state you see today. And it really was Columbus who set that process in motion, even if he didn't get here first. Attributes- Amerigo Vespucci ship - Hanay Zhenghe statue in the Quanzhou Maritime Museum - jonjanego Map show the way to Vinland - Finn Bjørklid "Noble Race" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ "Rising" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Views: 36977 V101 Science
What did Christopher Columbus REALLY find in 1492?
Christopher Columbus was pretty impressed with himself.
Views: 105 Aristocropotamus